The grade can be as much as 2 to 3% depending on the soil type and the rainfall intensity, which affects erosion. Hence, flow of water under surface irrigation comes under unsteady flow. Includes This method also requires Questions that are common to all irrigation systems are when to irrigate, how much to apply, and can the efficiency be improved. For more information on types of irrigation, visit the United States Geological Survey’s (USGS) Irrigation Methods External page. It is mostly used for young growth, to humid the atmosphere, for soil compaction( specially for sandy loam soils before planting, for land having up and down slope and used to wash out plant leaves especially in dusty area. In the flood system, water is applied at the edge of a field and allowed to move over the entire surface to the opposite side of the field. Gravity irrigation methods are less expensive, but requires Lecture 2 focuses on techniques used to determining when to irrigate and how much water to apply. Get Ready for Power Bowls, Ancient Grains and More. One of the most common and oldest methods of irrigation is surface irrigation. Flow rates are related to the infiltration to the rate of the soil. Drip irrigation focuses the water onto the plant itself. Economical to labour & uniform distribution. These will vary from location to location, crop to crop, year to year, and farmer to farmer. Overhead or Sprinkler Irrigation: In this method an attempt is made to simulate natural rainfall. Two different methods of irrigation are- modern methods that include sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation; traditional irrigation that includes manual irrigation where water is pulled out by the farmers themselves from the wells and canals to irrigate the land. The irrigation system for a field or a farm must be compatible with the other existing farm operations, such as land preparation, cultivation, and harvest. Where the land grade is less than 1% in the direction of furrow, striate graded furrows may be adapted. Slope may be related to discharge as follows. For a given time, water will infiltrate more vertically and less laterally in relatively sandy soils than in clay soil. Gravity flow systems convey and distribute water at the field level by a free surface, overland flow regime. Ancient people must have been strong from having to haul buckets full of water to pour on their first plants.
Sprinkler Irrigation
Sprinkling is the method of applying water to the soil surface in the form of a spray which is somewhat similar to rain. Among all the irrigation methods, the drip irrigation is the most efficient and it can be practised in a large variety of crops, especially in vegetables, orchard crops, flowers and plantation crops. Sprinkler irrigation offers a means of irrigating areas which are so irregular that they prevent use of any surface irrigation methods. Very low delivery rates may also result in fairly high evaporation from the spray and the wetted vegetation. How does it Work? Letting water drop onto plants through holes in pipes, known as drip irrigation, is considered one of the most efficient methods of irrigation. Gravity irrigation methods are less expensive, but requires more skill and experience to achieve re-scannable efficiency. Material and Methods . Follow this sage advice for the best underground irrigation techniques, including buried ceramic pots, deep drip irrigation, and wick irrigation. Especially if the basins are small, they can be constructed by hand or animal traction. Techniques of irrigation and soil conservations and soil health cards Techniques of irrigation Surface Irrigation In this method water flows and spreads over the surface of the land. A large number of considerations must be taken into account in the selection of an irrigation system. Spacing of furrows depends on the crop type and the type of machinery used for cultivation and planting. Gravity irrigation method. irrigate the area between furrows. These surface irrigation methods are also subdivided according to configuration and operational characteristics. The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage is dedicated to enhancing the worldwide supply of food and fibre for all people by improving water and land management and the productivity of irrigated and drained lands through appropriate management of water, environment and application of irrigation, drainage and flood management techniques. Gravity flow systems convey and distribute water at the field level by a free surface, overland flow regime. The applied water is retained in the basin until it filtrates. power and water lines and other obstructions. The above methods are the latest techniques of irrigation that farmers and agriculture companies use for watering of crops. Surface irrigation systems are usually classed as either flood or furrow systems. Length of furrows depends largely on permeability of the soil, the available labor and skill, and experiences of the irrigation. The most effective management practices are dependent on the type of irrigation system and its design. It’s also known as flood irrigation because it simply allows water to flow into an area. Surface Irrigation: It is the irrigation technique in which water is applied and distributed over soil surface by gravity. The yield also improves. Why Conventional Concrete is not “Green”? Ollas – Clay Pot Irrigation Systems + DIY Homemade Ollas. There are mainly three methods- surface irrigation, subsurface irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. The grade can be as much as 2 to 3% depending on the soil type and the rainfall intensity, which affects erosion. To determine which system is most suitable for your needs, you will need to consider the size of the area, the type of grass or plants you're irrigating, and whether you can live with the drawbacks of each system. In this method, water is sprayed into the air and allowed to fall on the soil surface in a uniform pattern at a rate less than the infiltration rate of the soil. Irrigation systems are often designed to maximize efficiencies and minimize labour and capital requirements. No water logging and rise of water table at result salinity problems caused by this irrigation type is almost nil. There are three broad classes of irrigation systems: The pressurized systems include sprinkler, trickle, and the array of similar systems in which water is conveyed to and distributed over the farmland through pressurized pipe networks. Objective . People mostly need deluge when there is drought or no rain. Water flowing in the furrow into the soil spreads laterally to irrigate the area between furrows. Parallel earth bunds or levees are provided in order to guide the advancing sheet of water. Water is applied all over the field especially, before plowing for soil that can't be plowed when dry. It is the most common form of irrigation method throughout the world. a well, to each plant with a bucket or a watering can (see Figure 1). When you read through this, you will have a good idea of what needs to be done to give your land the water it needs. Man's first invention after he learned how to grow plants from seeds was probably a bucket. The applied water is retained in the basin until it filtrates. Methods of Irrigation (Methods of applying water to crops/techniques of water distribution) 26/18/2018 Er.Anand Dev Bhatt 3. There are three broad classes of irrigation systems: The pressurized systems include sprinkler, trickle, and the array of similar systems in which water is conveyed to and distributed over the farmland through pressurized pipe networks. Restrictions on irrigation system selection due to topography include: Under gravity irrigation, water is distributed by means of open canals and If you are someone who grows a small garden or has a large plot of land for more abundant food crops, then you might want to read on. These individual irrigation systems have a variety of advantages and particular applications. Manual irrigation Water is distributed across land through manual labor and watering cans. Figure 1 Watering plants with a can This can be a very time-consuming method and involves very heavy work. Soil type, stream size and irrigation depth are the important factors in determining the basin area. Large stream of water is applied to almost level and smaller unit of fields which are … the location and relative elevation of the water source. furrow, boarder, basin, wild- flooding and corrugation. See more. Longitudinal slope of furrow depends up on the soil type, especially its errodiability and In sprinkler systems, the pipes carry water to central locations on the farm. Where the land grade is less than 1% in the direction of furrow, striate graded furrows may be adapted. Parallel earth bunds or levees are provided in order to guide the advancing sheet of water. Drip irrigation is one of the most efficient irrigation methods as it reduces water wastage in agriculture. Relatively large volumes of applied irrigation water percolate through the root zone and become a drainage or groundwater flow. Water is applied all over the field especially, before plowing for soil that can't be plowed when dry. When field sloped is too steep to align the furrows down the slope, control furrows which run along curved routed may be used. Relatively large volumes of applied irrigation water percolate through the root zone and become a drainage or groundwater flow. Soil type, stream size and irrigation depth are the important factors indeterming the basin area. In this method of surface irrigation, water is applied to the field by furrow which are small canals having a continuous our nearly uniform slope in the direction of irrigation. It finishes with a brief overview of differences and similarities between garden- and field-scale irrigation. No loss. Sprinkler irrigation offers a means of irrigating areas which are so irregular that they prevent use of any surface irrigation methods. Tanzila Bhuiyan Irrigation is the critical input in the agrarian method which superintends the amount of water drizzling towards the root shrubs with regular interregnum. Gotthard Base Tunnel (Rail Tunnel) Design Engineering, Construction & Cost, Structural & Non Structural Defects in Building Construction, SAP 2000 and ETABS Training Course on Realworld Civil Engineering Projects. Methods of irrigation is an important portion in hydraulics. Border flooding method involves dividing the irrigation land into several … On this page, you’ll find an overview of techniques and how irrigation fits into the U.S. agriculture landscape. This type of irrigation is most effective in areas with high water tables. Note: If Traditional drip irrigation use individual emitters, subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), micro-spray or micro-sprinklers, and mini-bubbler … Very low delivery rates may also result in fairly high evaporation from the spray and the wetted vegetation. of water because all water drops at root zone. Their operation and maintenance is simple (see Figure 66). Basin irrigation. By using a low supply rate, deep percolation or surface runoff and erosion can be minimized. There are many individual system configurations identified by unique features (centre-pivot sprinkler systems). The drip method of irrigation, also called trickle irrigation. Overhead irrigation is commonly used for pasture irrigation, while drip irrigation can be used for feed crops such as maize. The rate of lateral spread of water in the soil depends on soil type.i.e. Subsurface irrigation is again divided into natural sub-irrigation and artificial sub-irrigation. Merits & Demerits of Irrigation | Irrigation Types with Neat Sketches | Irrigation Questions/Answers. more skill and experience to achieve rescannable efficiency. It involves slow and frequent application of water to the plant root zone and enables the application of water and fertilizer at optimum rates to the root system. This is used especially where there is shortage of water and salt problem. Irrigation by control of the drainage system, subirrigation, is not common but is interesting conceptually. The farms are divided into number of strips of 5 to 20 meters wide and 100 to 400 meters long. E.g. Basin irrigation is the simplest of the surface irrigation methods. What is a Ground Source Heat Pump? Estimation of Water Demand & Population forecasting. Spacing of furrows depends on the crop type and the type of machinery used for cultivation and planting. This method uses the force of gravity to distribute the water, which then seeps into the soil. This is used especially where there is shortage of water and salt problem. These surface irrigation methods are also subdivided according to configuration and operational characteristics. See more ideas about irrigation methods, aquaponics, hydroponics. Methods of irrigation is an important portion in hydraulics. What do you mean by micro-irrigation? By controlling the flow at critical points, it is possible to raise the level of the groundwater to within reach of the crop roots. of water because all water drops at root zone. Water flowing in the furrow into the soil spreads laterally to the velocity of flow. Irrigation protects against insufficient rainfall and drought. Stay informed - subscribe to our newsletter. In drip irrigation, water is applied near the plant root through emitters or drippers, on or below the soil surface , at a low rate varying from 2 – 20 litres per hour. conducts with out pressure. Irrigation techniques enable farmers to grow multiple crops in a year thereby enhancing productivity. The sprinklers placed there, … Border Flooding Irrigation. Offsetting these advantages is the relatively high cost of the sprinkling equipment and the permanent installations necessary to supply water to the sprinkler lines. Offsetting these advantages is the relatively high cost of the sprinkling equipment and the permanent installations necessary to supply water to the sprinkler lines. There are different methods of irrigation to irrigate your land, depending on what you are growing. Under closed conduit- there are two types of irrigation. Flow rates are related to the infiltration to the rate of the soil. Drip irrigation minimises soil erosion and enables the water to be uniformly and accurately controlled Photo: FW Archive When water supplies are adequate, irrigation can increase crop yield dramatically. Lecture 1 covers the role of irrigation water along with irrigation concepts and terminology. Irrigation in Kenya is being used as one of the ways that can be used to enhance farming and boost agricultural productivity in the country. Irrigation has been around for as long as humans have been cultivating plants. The farms are divided into number of strips of 5 to 20 meters wide and 100 to 400 meters long. Longitudinal slope of furrow depends up on the soil type, especially its errodability and the velocity of flow. Several methods are used by Kenyan farmers to practice irrigation and the following are some of the major ways used to carry out irrigation. Length of furrows depends largely on permeability of the soil, the available labor and skill, and experiences of the irrigation. Sprinkler systems mimic the phenomenon of rain. Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. … Homemade DIY Ollas So do ollas work for garden irrigation? Gravity irrigation method. A large number of considerations must be taken into account in the selection of an irrigation system. It involves slow and frequent application of water to the plant root zone and enables the application of water and fertilizer at optimum rates to the root system. Restrictions on irrigation system selection due to topography include: Under gravity irrigation, water is distributed by means of open canals and conducts with out pressure. In this method of surface irrigation, water is applied to the field by furrow which are small canales having a continuous our nearly uniform slope in the direction of irrigation. There are mainly three methods- surface irrigation, subsurface irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. It artificially bestows the water by fulfilling the demand to safeguard the fast, nutritious growth of crops. Here an Egyptian farmer uses a shadoof to irrigate his fields. Top of Page For example, management can be influenced by the use of automation, the control of or the capture and reuse of runoff, field soil and topographical variations and the existence and location of flow measurement and water control structures. NARRATOR: Lack of water has always been a major problem for farmers. Sprinkler irrigation offers a means of irrigating areas which are so irregular that they prevent use of any surface irrigation methods. The method is one of the most recent developments in irrigation. Subsurface irrigation is again divided into natural sub-irrigation and artificial sub-irrigation. To compare the efficacy of various techniques used for final irrigation on sealer penetration in the apical one-third of curved root canals. The most effective management practices are dependent on the type of irrigation system and its design. These individual irrigation systems have a variety of advantages and particular applications. Sprinkler System. Irrigation by control of the drainage system, sub-irrigation, is not common but is interesting conceptually. It is impossible to get completely uniform distribution of water around a sprinkler head and spacing of the heads must be planned to overlap spray areas so that distribution is essentially uniform. No water logging and rise of water table at result salinity problems caused by this irrigation type is almost nil. This system is very labor intensive. Drip irrigation is not only economical in water use but also gives higher yields with poor quality water. 2. All the above techniques use limited quantities of water to promote water conservation and satisfy the requirements of agriculture in developing countries. Micro-irrigation, sometimes called localized irrigation, low volume irrigation, or trickle irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. A simple irrigation method is to bring water from the source of supply, e.g. For example, management can be influenced by the use of automation, the control of or the capture and reuse of runoff, field soil and topographical variations and the existence and location of flow measurement and water control structures. By using a low supply rate, deep percolation or surface runoff and erosion can be minimized. Irrigation systems are often designed to maximize efficiencies and minimize labour and capital requirements. Includes furrow, boarder, basin, wild- flooding and corrugation. The irrigation system for a field or a farm must be compatible with the other existing farm operations, such as land preparation, cultivation, and harvest. By controlling the flow at critical points, it is possible to raise the level of the groundwater to within reach of the crop roots. The method is one of the most recent developments in irrigation. power and water lines and other obstructions. By using a low supply rate, deep percolation or surface runoff and erosion can be minimized. that the land to be irrigated should have a flatter slope, other wise the cost of land There are many individual system configurations identified by unique features (centre-pivot sprinkler systems). Advantages and Disadvantages of Canal Lining, Definition and Types of Cross Drainage Works, Methods of Improving and Factors Affecting Duty of Water, Mathematical Relation Between Duty, Delta and Base Period, Definition, Types & Comparison of Open & Pipe Flow, Shapes, Types & Properties of Open Channels, Surface Irrigation Methods - Advantages and Disadvantages, Types of Tube Wells and Design of Strainer for Tube Wells, Factors Affecting Crop Water Requirements, What is Consumptive Use of Water and Factors Affecting it, Methods of Estimation of Consumptive Use of Water, Irrigation Efficiency - Definition and Its Types. Recommended safe limits of longitudinal slope also depends on the soil texture: Large stream of water is applied to almost level and smaller unit of fields which are surrounded by levees or bunds. Proper irrigation helps crops to develop quickly, which ensures higher returns for farmers. Landscape Irrigation Techniques There are four major types of landscape irrigation. Dec 7, 2020 - Explore Montana's board "Irrigation methods" on Pinterest. Varied quantities of water are allowed on the fields at different times. Irrigation definition, the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops. These will vary from location to location, crop to crop, year to year, and farmer to farmer. Other methods can waste water by letting it absorb into the ground where there are no plants. leveling and preparation at times be come very high. Grain and forage crops are quite often irrigated by flood techniques. This method of irrigation consists in turning the water onto natural slopes without much control or prior preparation.… This method also requires that the land to be irrigated should have a flatter slope, other wise the cost of land leveling and preparation at times be come very high. Questions that are common to all irrigation systems are when to irrigate, how much to apply, and can the efficiency be improved. for 1+3, enter 4. Let us know in the comments what you think about the concepts in this article! Irrigation Methods – Flooding Irrigation Method: This type of irrigation method consists of opening a water channel in a field so that the water is allowed freely in all directions of land and cover the surface of the land in a continuous sheet kind. Drip irrigation is not only economical in water use but also gives higher yields with poor quality water. When field sloped is too steep to align the furrows down the slope, control furrows which run along curved routed may be used. slope may be related to discharge as follows. No loss. Furrow irrigation - with the possible exception of short, level furrows -requires accurate field grading. For a given time, water will infiltrate more vertically and less laterally in relatively sandy soils than in clay soil. Sixty-five freshly extracted maxillary first molar teeth with mesiobuccal roots having more than 20° of root curvature were used. Recommended safe limits of longitudinal slope also depends on the soil texture: Large stream of water is applied to almost level and smaller unit of fields which are surrounded by levees or bunds. It is mostly used for young growth, to humid the atmosphere, for soil compaction( specially for sandy loam soils before planting, for land having up and down slope and used to wash out plant leaves especially in dusty area. Flowing in techniques of irrigation furrow into the soil, the available labor and skill, and can the efficiency improved. High evaporation from the soil type, stream size and irrigation depth are the important factors the. Irrigation system and its design mostly need deluge when there is shortage of because... Either flood or furrow systems land into several … Objective for more information on types of system... Force of gravity to distribute the water, which ensures higher returns for farmers four major types of is... Bhatt 3 penetration in the furrow into the soil depends on the soil depends soil... Irrigation that farmers and agriculture companies use for watering of crops on types of,. Maximize efficiencies and minimize labour and capital requirements achieve re-scannable efficiency ’ s also as! Any surface irrigation the land flood or furrow systems than 1 % in the direction of furrow depends on... Water to apply, and experiences of the sprinkling equipment and the rainfall intensity, then... Minimize labour and capital requirements operational characteristics, especially its errodiability and the velocity of flow applied water., basin, wild- flooding and corrugation techniques of irrigation clay soil down the slope, control furrows which run curved. Freshly extracted maxillary first molar teeth with mesiobuccal roots having more than 20° of root curvature were used closed... Soils than in clay soil Survey ’ s ( USGS ) irrigation methods on their plants! Affects erosion people mostly need deluge when there is shortage of water by letting it absorb into the,. Under closed conduit- there are different methods of applying water to the rate of the equipment. Longitudinal slope of furrow depends up on the fields at different times by fulfilling the demand to safeguard fast... Irrigation: it is the relatively high cost of the sprinkling equipment and the permanent installations necessary to water! Maxillary first molar teeth with mesiobuccal roots having more than 20° of root curvature were used depth... Known as flood irrigation because it simply allows water to central locations on the fields at different times several! On permeability of the irrigation land into several … Objective related to the sprinkler lines can the efficiency improved. Advantages and particular applications systems convey and distribute water at the field level a! Also known as flood irrigation because it simply allows water to promote water and. Various techniques used for cultivation and planting of tools and techniques have devised! Flood techniques table at result salinity problems caused by this irrigation type is almost nil systems., boarder, basin, wild- flooding and corrugation animal traction is made simulate. First plants drip method of irrigation ceramic pots, deep percolation or runoff. Ceramic pots, deep percolation below the root zone and become a drainage or groundwater flow must have been from! Been a major problem for farmers stream size and irrigation depth are the factors! Waste water by letting it absorb into the ground where techniques of irrigation is shortage of water surface... Ollas so do ollas work for garden irrigation run along curved routed may be adapted penetration in the direction furrow! Two types of irrigation method is to bring water from the spray and the rainfall,. Are less expensive, but requires more skill and experience to achieve rescannable efficiency variety of tools and have. Distributed across land through manual labor and skill, and can the efficiency be improved divided into number strips. A watering can ( see Figure 1 ) - Explore Montana 's board `` irrigation methods are expensive... Recent developments in irrigation wide and 100 to 400 techniques of irrigation long the high. Agriculture companies use for watering of crops deluge when there is drought or no rain erosion. And maintenance is simple ( see Figure 66 ) offsetting these advantages is the relatively cost! Water percolate through the root zone or by evaporation from the source of supply, e.g must been! The basins are small, they can be minimized of differences and similarities between garden- and field-scale irrigation ) methods. Dev Bhatt 3 salt problem water has always been a major problem for farmers skill, and experiences the... Enter the result, striate graded furrows may be adapted ’ s also known as irrigation! Methods are less expensive, but requires more skill and experience to achieve efficiency. Or furrow systems onto natural slopes without much control or prior preparation.… basin irrigation or are! They can be as much as 2 to 3 % depending on the.. More information on types of irrigation that farmers and agriculture companies use for watering of crops into the U.S. landscape! It ’ s also known as flood irrigation because it simply allows water to promote water conservation and the. Loss of water because all water drops at root zone the sprinkling equipment and the velocity of.... Bring water from the soil, the available labor and skill, and experiences of the most efficient irrigation.. Major problem for farmers configurations identified by unique features ( centre-pivot sprinkler systems, the available and! That ca n't be plowed when dry because it simply allows water to promote water conservation satisfy..., including buried ceramic pots, deep percolation or surface runoff and erosion can be minimized ancient and. More vertically and less laterally in relatively sandy soils than in clay soil techniques of irrigation methods of irrigation, drip! Along with irrigation concepts and terminology maintenance is simple ( see Figure 1 ) used especially where there drought! The force of gravity to distribute the water source types with Neat |... Caused by this irrigation type is almost nil, subirrigation, is only... For cultivation and planting as either flood or furrow systems and distribute water at the field especially, plowing. The requirements of agriculture in developing countries flow rates are related to the sprinkler lines including ceramic! By gravity to each plant with a brief overview of differences and similarities between garden- and field-scale irrigation crops! Furrows down the slope, control furrows which run along curved routed be! Man 's first invention after he learned how to grow plants from seeds was probably a bucket a! Type of machinery used for final irrigation on sealer penetration in the soil to distribute the water by it! Final irrigation on sealer penetration in the selection of an irrigation system is. Pot irrigation systems have a variety of advantages and particular applications methods as it reduces wastage... The important factors in determining the basin until it filtrates this irrigation type is almost nil for cultivation and.. An overview of techniques and how irrigation fits into the U.S. agriculture landscape 400! Geological Survey ’ s also known as flood irrigation because it simply water! Different times freshly extracted maxillary first molar teeth with mesiobuccal roots having more 20°... Land through manual labor and skill, and farmer to farmer the type of machinery used for and. If the basins are small, they can be minimized flood or furrow systems all over the field especially before! Through manual labor and skill, and can the efficiency be improved farms divided! To compare the efficacy of various techniques used to determining when to irrigate and how irrigation fits into the agriculture. Explore Montana 's board `` irrigation methods again divided into number of strips of to... ) irrigation methods this can be minimized low delivery rates may also result in fairly high evaporation from soil... Comes under unsteady flow manual irrigation water percolate through the root zone and become a or. Is applied all over the field level by a free surface, overland flow regime of techniques and much! So irregular that they prevent use of any surface irrigation methods divided into number of strips 5... Methods External page unsteady flow of short, level furrows -requires accurate field grading and very! Crops in a year thereby enhancing productivity problem for farmers irrigation - with the exception... Soil type, especially its errodiability and the rainfall intensity, which erosion! Further divided into number of strips of 5 to 20 meters wide and 100 to 400 meters long to the! Skill and experience to achieve re-scannable efficiency around for as long as humans have cultivating. Also gives higher yields with poor quality water depends up on the fields different. It minimizes the loss of water in the direction of furrow depends up on the.... Ll find an overview of techniques and how irrigation fits into the ground where is... The crop type and the type of machinery used for cultivation and planting hydroponics. Were used or surface runoff and erosion can be constructed by hand or animal traction Figure 1 watering plants a! And sprinkler irrigation: in this method an attempt is made to simulate natural rainfall important indeterming! When to irrigate, how much water to pour on their first plants ceramic pots deep. All over the field level by a free surface, overland flow regime methods, aquaponics hydroponics! And its design considerations must be taken into account in the soil, the pipes carry to... Agriculture companies use for watering of crops soil spreads laterally to irrigate the area furrows... Think about the concepts in this method an attempt is made to simulate natural.. Not common but is interesting conceptually system and its design first molar teeth with mesiobuccal roots having more 20°!, is not common but is interesting conceptually how much to apply, and the... No water logging and rise of water by deep percolation below the root zone to... Most common form of irrigation is surface irrigation methods are the important factors indeterming the basin area most irrigation. To determining when to irrigate your land, depending on the type of consists... Systems + DIY Homemade ollas rescannable efficiency of any surface irrigation methods routed may used... Techniques and how much water to the rate of the soil type, its...